The sinking of the USS Maine in Havana Harbor caused the rally cry that swept across America and led to the Spanish - American War, our Regiments first fight on foreign soil . 513 officers and men of the 22nd Infantry Regiment landed in Cuba in June 22, 1898 . Only 165 of those men returned to Fort Crook, NB., the Regiment's home in September 1898. Regulars By God ! Deeds Not Words !
The Spanish-American War
The following narrative on the 22nd Infantry Regiment comes from the book by A. B. "Bud" Feuer entitled, "Combat Diary - Episodes from the history of the Twenty-Second Regiment, 1866-1905" and are reprinted with our gracious appreciation for Bud Feuer giving us permission to extract from his book.
A.B. "Bud" Feuer's book, Combat Diary", from which this article is extracted is available from Greenwood Publishing Group, P.O. Box 5007, Westport, CT. 06881-5007 or by calling 1-800-225-5800. Price is $45 , ISBN is 0-275-93929-4
The Spanish-American War is difficult to evaluate. In actual combat, the Indians at Little Big Horn killed almost as many Americans in one afternoon as the Spanish did during the entire conflict. The real tragedy, however, was that, although the U.S. Army lost approximately 350 men killed in the Cuban campaign against the Spaniards, nearly 2,500 died from disease - malaria, yellow fever, typhoid, and dysentery. As in all its major wars, the United States found itself woefully unprepared. The entire army consisted of only 28,000 regulars - many of whom would still be needed at frontier post to keep order in the far west. It was no secret that there were 200,000 Spanish soldiers stationed throughout Cuba - but their exact disposition was unknown - and there were no accurate maps of the country or its harbors. Like all regular army units of this period, the 22nd Infantry Regiment had been brought up to a high state of efficiency and readiness. Most of the troops had had several years of service. They were a fearless breed of men, accustomed to being vastly outnumbered, and could be depended upon to fight to the last man. After the Maine disaster, as the nation drew nearer to the outbreak of hostilities with Spain, the 22nd Infantry Regiment quietly made preparations for war. Movement toward Cuba - On April 18, 1898, the Regiment, under the command of Colonel Charles A. Wikoff, departed Fort Crook, NB by rail, enroute to Mobile, AL. Twenty-nine officers and 484 enlisted men constituted the organization. At every stop, the troop train carrying the 22nd Infantry Regiment was greeted by enthusiastic citizens and brass bands. As the train lumbered south, decorative flowers were attached to the railroad cars. Colonel Wikoff and his frontier soldiers arrived at the Alabama port on April 20 - war was officially declared on April 25, 1898. On April 28, 1898 the 22nd Infantry Regiment received orders to break camp. They boarded a train for Tampa, FL and arrived on May 2. For the next few weeks, the monotonous and tedious days would be spent in drilling by company, battalion, and Regiment. While at Tampa, the 22nd Infantry Regiment was assigned to the First Brigade, Second Division, Fifth Army Corps. The First Brigade was comprised of the 22nd and 8th Infantry Regiments (thus continuing a close relationship between the two regiments which started in the Indian Wars and continued in World War II, the Cold War, Vietnam, and elements are still part of the 4th Infantry Division today), and was commanded by General William Ludlow. Major General William R. Shafter was the Fifth Corps commander. General Shafter's corps was composed of 15,337 men - including nineteen infantry regiments, four light artillery batteries, two siege batteries, two companies of engineers, one detachment of signal corps, forty-eight troops of cavalry (dismounted), and a single hospital unit. The Fifth Army Corps was almost entirely composed of regulars, with the exception of three regiments, including Teddy Roosevelt's Rough Riders. When Nelson Miles, commanding general of the army, arrived in Tampa on June 1, he was appalled at what he saw. Miles immediately realized that the army was not ready for a campaign in the tropics - the troops from the northern posts were still wearing their winter uniforms. Because of delays in the army's supply department, summer clothing had never been shipped. The 22nd Infantry was one of the units that was forced to wear their heavy uniforms thoughout the Cuban action. On the morning of June 7, 1898, the 22nd Infantry Regiment broke camp and marched aboard the Orizaba. After a delay of seven days, the troops sailed for Santiago. Aboard the Orizaba, the men of the 22nd Infantry packed the railings to watch the unforgettable spectacle. Lieutenant Kreps noted: "The scene presented by the embarkation was a memorable one - and was witnessed from the wharves by thousands of people who had been arriving at the port during the past twenty-four hours. . . .Bright signal flags and bunting whipped from every mast. And that, along with the cheering and patriotic music, lifted the spirits of the weary soldiers. The waiting was over - we were off to war at last!" The expedition arrived off the Morro Castle entrance to Santiago Bay about noon on June 20. At that time, Colonel Wikoff was transferred to the Third Brigade, and Lieutenant Colonel John H. Patterson was placed in command of the 22nd Infantry Regiment. Captain Wassell wrote: "Daiquiri, seventeen miles east of Santiago, was the site chosen for the 22nd Infantry to disembark. There was an iron pier, five hundred feet long, and also a wharf.....The Regiment climbed into the boats and headed through the rough seas toward the smoldering dock. Enthusiasm ran high and rousing cheers burst from the transports still waiting to be unloaded. Regimental bands played - while out at sea, the navy bombarded the wooded mountains that rose above from the beach. Shells whistled over our heads and exploded far up on the heights......Near the dock, a wall of surf roared an angry welcome - then broke in swamping torrents. Boats smacked against boats, and crashed against the pier - then, thrown back by outgoing waves, they were flung forward again - someone finally grabbing a line tossed from the beach. The troops scrambled out, tossing blanket rolls ahead of them - but carefully handing rifles to helping comrades. Surf drenched and panting, the men of the 22nd Infantry caught their breath - then cheered as the Regimental colors were unfurled." The 22nd Infantry Regiment was the first American Regiment to land in Cuba. The royal palm on our Regimental colors forever commemorates that deed. After a brief rest, the 22nd Infantry marched about four miles in the direction of Siboney and then camped near Daiquiri Creek. Captain Carroll Dunham, division medical officer, described the march inland: "When the troops landed on the beach at Daiquiri, each man carried a blanket, poncho, and three days' rations rolled up in half of a shelter tent. However, as they trudged along the hilly trail, the choking dust turned to mud on their sopping wet uniforms. The ferocious sun bore down on the uncomfortable men and many threw away their blankets. It was not long before clothing and haversacks began to litter the path. The scene looked more like a retreat than an unopposed advance..... Many of the men had abandoned their rations - and as there was no hope of a supply train reaching the camp before two or three days, the situation threatened to become serious." The following morning, the 22nd Infantry Regiment headed the advance inland and by noon had taken possession of Siboney. For the next several days, the 22nd fought the heat and the elements. On the morning of June 27, 1898, General Ludlow moved the 22nd Infantry forward about four miles on the El Caney road. The Regiment remained there until the afternoon of June 30, when General Lawton ordered the entire division to resume its march north. On July 1, 1898, General Ludlow's First Brigade slowly approached El Caney. Captain Wassell described the action: "The 22nd Infantry led the advance along a trail overgrown with brush and vines until we reached the main Santiago-El Caney road near the Ducoureaud House. The Second Battalion was then deployed and skirmished northward through the jungle to check if there were any paths over which the Spaniards in the town might escape to Santiago. The First Battalion continued along the main road toward El Caney. About a thousand yards from the city, Company A, our advance guard, came under sharp Mauser fire. The battalion deployed rapidly east and west of the road. LTC Patterson was severely wounded by the sudden enemy attack, and Major Van Horne took over command of the Regiment.....For more than a half-hour we cut through undergrowth and tangled vegetation, which was so dense that the battalion could not see more than ten feet to the front. In order to keep the line in order, men were continually forced to call out their position to skirmishers on either side of them..." After three hours of battle, the First Battalion had crept to within seven hundred yards of the enemy positions - suffering heavy losses in the process. Meanwhile at El Caney, the Second Battalion of the 22nd Infantry, under the command of Captain B. C. Lockwood, was located to the extreme left of General Ludlow's line. The battalion received orders to hack its way through the jungle for half a mile, then swing east until they came to the Cuabietas road. This was to be their assigned position to block any enemy retreat from the town. As Lockwood's troops cut their way through the heavy underbrush, they came under fire from Spanish snipers. The advance was so difficult that it was impossible to keep the formation together. Captain Robert Getty's company became separated from the rest of the battalion. They reconnoitered the area west of Lockwood's position, and succeeded in cutting the El Caney telephone line along the Cuabietas road. Getty rejoined the battalion at the edge of the fire-swept clearing, about five hundred yards from the trenches and main blockhouse. Captain Wassell narrated: "The Spanish use of barbed wire proved to be very effective in stopping our advance. Wires were stretched near the ground to trip our men when they would run from one location to another. A few yards beyond, the Spaniards had constructed tall fences - strung with many lines of wire. These defenses were laid in cultivated valleys and other open spaces near the entrenchment's. Enemy snipers were posted in the treetops around the clearings. Every fence compelled a momentary halt in our progress - and during those moments, we were exposed to pitiless fire. From noon until one o'clock there was a lull in the fighting, and men with wire cutters moved forward. Taking advantage of bushes and dips in the ground, they crawled to within two hundred yards of the trenches and cut many of the wires. They returned to our lines safely. Owing to the great extent of the front occupied by the Regiment, General Ludlow moved the Second Battalion still farther to the west, and advanced the First Battalion to within five hundred yards of the enemy. The 8th Infantry was positioned between the First and Second Battalions." About one o'clock, the Spaniards increased their firing with renewed vigor. The Americans were forced to hug the ground at the edge of the clearings, and strain their eyes for moments when they could catch a glimpse of the enemy. The fierce heat from the sun was intolerable - and water was almost impossible to obtain. Jacob Kreps related: "Occasionally, the defenders stood upright in their trenches and parapets in order to fire volleys. At other times their rifle pits appeared dotted with straw hats - and a moment later, the enemy was invisible again. Our soldiers would shoot the hats to pieces but did not kill anyone. The Spaniards had resorted to the old trick of placing their hats on sticks for the men to shoot at. The blockhouse and trenches at the south end of town were protected by tall trees. Not only did they conceal the enemy's movements, but snipers stationed in the trees became a major problem. The sharpshooters could not be seen, however, their fire was devastatingly accurate." Because of the two-mile range of the high-powered Mausers, the American artillery was useless at close distances against the Spanish defenses. The most frustrating aspect about the failure of artillery support was the fact that the gun batteries were unable to cover the infantry assaults on the San Juan heights and El Caney adequately........ At the same time that Chaffee's troops were assaulting the hilltop, Ludlow's brigade - led by the 22nd Infantry Regiment - rushed from their jungle cover and sprinted across the fire-swept clearing. Yard by yard, trench by trench, and blockhouse by blockhouse, the brigade fought its way into the town. The Spanish garrison was besieged on all sides. The enemy became confused and disoriented. They searched for a route to withdraw their forces to the safety of Santiago, but there was only one path still open - the Cuabietas road. Captain Lockwood's Second Battalion had been waiting all afternoon to get into the fight. They could hear the battle raging, but had no idea of the outcome until Spanish soldiers were seen fleeing toward them. Very few, if any, of the enemy escaped Lockwood's ambush. More than two hundred dead and wounded were counted along the intended retreat route. Captain Wassell recalled the moment of triumph: "We heard shouting from the hill. At first we did not comprehend the reason for the celebration but as the sounds rose in volume, we realized that they were American voices cheering their victory." The Fifth Army Corps casualties for the one-day battle at San Juan Heights and El Caney totaled 200 dead and nearly twelve hundred wounded. The 22nd Infantry Regiment was saddened by the news that Colonel Wikoff had been killed earlier in the day at San Juan Hill. The weary soldiers of the 22nd Infantry had hoped for a good meal and a few hours' rest - but it was not meant to be. During the early morning march to El Caney, the troops had been ordered to stack their haversacks and blanket rolls at different locations along the road. The belongings were placed under guard. However, a few hours later, when the walking wounded began straggling to the rear, the surgeons called upon the sentries to help bring the injured men to the aid station. Two miles of blankets, ponchos, and rations were left unguarded, and anyone who passed along the trail helped themselves to whatever they happened to need. After the conflict, when the Regiment returned to pick up their belongings, very little was left. About six o'clock, rain started to fall, and the dead tired soldiers - without having eaten, and no blankets or ponchos to keep themselves dry - laid down alongside the muddy roadway - and slept. At three o'clock the following morning, July 2, Lawton's division was ordered to head for Santiago. His brigades were harrassed by snipers during the march, but managed to reach their assigned positions on schedule. The string of American trenches stretched in a five-mile horseshoe curve around the city. The 22nd Infantry dug themselves in on the extreme right of the line. At 10:30 that night, the Spaniards launched an artillery barrage and infantry against the right flank of the division. The 22nd Infantry Regiment held their ground and beat back the enemy charge. The 22nd Infantry held their position through the remainder of July 2 and 3. Dr. Dunham recorded the tragic set of circumstances that were about to occur - and would take more American lives than the war itself: "When the notice of the bombardment was sent to General Torah, the city gates were opened and thousands of miserable inhabitants rushed out toward the invading corps. They were received with compassion and kindness - which did more credit to the hearts of our men than to their heads. The rabble were hungry, and stricken with disease and infection. They were truly more menacing to the Americans than all the soldiers of Spain." The chief surgeon, Lieutenant Colonel Senn, stated: "Our troops were in a strange land among strange people. The Americans enjoyed the novelty of hero worship - not realizing how dearly they would be called upon to pay for such a privilege. Houses and huts in which yellow fever was raging were visited regularly, and the dangerous germs of this and other diseases were inhaled as a matter of course. The results of such intimate association by our susceptible soldiers with the natives could not be readily foreseen. It required only the usual time for the disease to make its appearance. And when it did so, it was everywhere along the lines of entrenchment's." On the morning of July 4, the 22nd Infantry was ordered into position three miles farther to the right and closer to the besieged city. During the night, the 22nd Infantry Regiment was moved forward to the northeast point of Santiago Bay - less than two hundred yards from the enemy rifle pits. Captain Wassell stated: "We were so close to the Spaniards that we could yell at each other. Some of our men could speak Spanish, and many verbal exchanges took place - usually ending in mutual cursing." However, the lengthy siege was beginning to take its toll on the Fifth Army Corps. General Marcus Wright observed: "The men had been standing day and night crouched in the trenches - often knee deep in water from thunderstorms, and always short on rations. The oppressive heat and sickness was having a detrimental effect on the troops. They were unprotected from the drenching rains, and fell easy prey to tropical diseases. Morale was low, and every day it became more difficult to arouse them to vigorous action." The troops maintained their positions amid the terrible conditions and finally, on July 16, the final terms of the Spanish surrender were agreed upon. After General Shafter and men of the 2nd Cavalry and 9th Infantry Regiments entered Santiago, the celebration began in the Fifth Corps rifle pits. Jacob Kreps described the joyous scene: "The 22nd Infantry and their band paraded in perfect formation along the battlefront. As far as the eye could see, solders were jumping about on the crests of the trenches, celebrating their hard won victory. The surrounding hills were alive with frolicking troops - and brightly colored regimental and American flags dotted the landscape. On the following day, July 18, the Regiment was moved back to San Juan Heights. Everyone was suffering from unavoidable exposure. During the daily thunderstorms, the men had only been able to get slight protection from their shelter halves. For many days and nights they had worn the same wet clothing and slept in water filled trenches. Malaria, yellow fever, typhoid, and dysentery spread through the Regiment until only a few officers and a small number of men were fit for duty - and these only because they were less sick than the others." No matter how hard the medical department worked to save lives, the soldiers continued to succumb to the tropical illnesses at an alarming rate. General Shafter held a meeting with his division and brigade commanders. It was unanimously decided that the only salvation for the troops was to leave Cuba as soon as possible. The Regiments would be replaced with men from southern states - who were thought to be immune to yellow fever. The Surgeon General selected Montauk Point, New York as the campsite for the returning American soldiers. It was located at the extreme eastern end of Long Island and thought to be far enough away from populated areas for safety. The receiving station was named Camp Wikoff in honor of the 22nd Infantry's popular colonel. As the American troops boarded the transports for their trip back to the United States, they were issued summer uniforms - just in time for the sharp sea breezes and chilly nights at Montauk Point. General Ludlow's brigade, including the 22nd Infantry Regiment, was notified on August 11, 1898 that they were to return home aboard the Mobile. The troops were inspected by medical officers for signs of yellow fever. All infected clothing was burned, and summer uniforms issued. The brigade embarked on August 13. Jacob Kreps wrote: "The journey from Cuba to the United States added more hardships to the Regiment's already long list. No provisions had been made for the sick. Men suffering from fever, chills, and various stomach ailments, were compelled to eat ordinary rations. Eleven deaths occurred during the trip. We reached Montauk Point on August 20. But by now the news of the dreadful campaign, and the appalling stories of the ocean voyages, had reached the American public. Privations were now a thing of the past. The people seized every opportunity to load upon the returning soldiers all the delicacies of life. Nothing was left undone, by the government or private citizens, that could add to the comfort - and the luxury - of the troops. And although the majority of the men were prevented by sickness from enjoying the many good things thrust upon them, the kindness prompting these gifts cheered more than one invalid to recovery." On September 16, 1898, the 22nd Infantry Regiment left Camp Wikoff for its former station - Camp Crook, Nebraska. Out of the 513 officers and men who had left the post four months earlier, only 165 returned - and almost all of those were still suffering from disease and malnutrition. Upon the 22nd's return to Nebraska, four additional companies were authorized - bringing the Regimental strength to twenty-six officers and 1,070 enlisted men. Jacob Kreps was advanced in rank to captain and appointed commanding officer of Company M. However, nearly the entire Regiment was now comprised of new recruits. It would take four months of intensive training before the 22nd Infantry Regiment would be prepared to be sent into action again - and they were again on the road to war when they received orders on January 27, 1899 to proceed to California by rail for embarkation to the Philippines.
Spanish - American War
Take a quick tour with the 22nd Infantry in 1898
Our Regiment on June 20,1898
June 20, 1898 - 101 years ago - The 22nd Infantry Regiment arrived off the Morro Castle entrance to Santiago Bay about noon. Captain Wassell wrote: " Daiquiri, seventeen miles east of Santiago, was the site chosen for the 22nd Infantry to disembark. There was an iron pier, five hundred feet long, and also a wharf.... The Regiment climbed into the boats and headed through the rough seas toward the smoldering dock. Enthusiasm ran high and rousing cheers burst from the transports still waiting to be unloaded. Regimental bands played - while out at sea, the Navy bombarded the wooded mountains that rose above from the beach.
Shells whistled over our heads and exploded far up on the heights...Near the dock, a wall of surf roared an angry welcome - then broke in the swamping torrents. Boats smacked against boats, and crashed against the pier - then, thrown back by outgoing waves, they were flung forward again - someone finally grabbing a line tossed from the beach. The troops scrambled out, tossing blanket rolls ahead of them - but carefully handing rifles to helping comrades. Surf drenched and panting, the men of the 22nd Infantry caught their breath - then cheered as the Regimental colors were unfurled." The 22nd Infantry Regiment was the first American Regiment to land in Cuba.
The royal palm on our Regimental colors forever commemorates that deed. After a brief rest, the 22nd Infantry marched about four miles in the direction of Siboney and camped near Daiquiri Creek ...
On July 01, 1898
After spending several days fighting the heat and elements along the El Caney road, the 22nd Infantry Regiment led the advance along a trail overgrown with brush and vines until we reached the main Santiago - El Caney road. About a thousand yards from the city, Company A, our advance guard, came under sharp Mauser fire.
The battalion deployed rapidly east and west of the road. For more than a half-hour we cut through undergrowth and tangled vegetation, which was so dense that the battalion could see no more than 10 feet to the front. In the afternoon, the brigade, led by the 22nd Infantry Regiment, rushed from their jungle cover and sprinted across the fire swept clearing. Yard by yard, trench by trench, and blockhouse by blockhouse, the brigade fought its way into town..
On July 02, 1898
After the conflict of July 1st, the 22nd Infantry laid down along the muddy road and slept. At three o'clock in the morning on July 2, the Regiment was ordered to head for Santiago. Harassed by snipers during the march, they managed to reach their assigned positions on schedule. The string of American trenches stretched in a five mile horseshoe curve around the city. The 22nd Infantry dug in on the extreme right of the line. At 10:30 that night, the Spaniards launched an artillery barrage and infantry against the right flank of the division. The 22nd Infantry held their ground and beat back the enemy charge. The 22nd Infantry held their position through the remainder of July 2-3..
On July 03, 1898
Dr. Durham recorded the tragic set of circumstances that were about to occur, and would take more American lives than the war itself : " When the notice of the bombardment was sent to General Torah, the city gates were opened and thousands of miserable inhabitants rushed out toward the invading corps. They were received with compassion and kindness - which did more credit to the hearts of our men than to their heads. The rabble were hungry, and stricken with disease and infection. They were truly more menacing to the Americans than all of the soldiers of Spain. Houses and huts in which yellow fever was raging were visited regularly, and the dangerous germs of this and other diseases were inhaled as a matter of course..
July 4 - 15, 1898
On the morning of July 4, the 22nd Infantry was ordered into position three miles father to the right and closer to the besieged city. During the night, the 22nd Infantry was moved forward to the northeast point of Santiago Bay - less than 200 yards from the enemy rifle pits. Captain Wassell stated : " We were so close to the Spaniards that we could yell at each other. Some of our men could speak Spanish, and many verbal exchanges took place, usually ending in mutual cursing." However the lengthy siege was beginning to take its toll on the 5th Army Corps. " The men had been standing day and night crouched in the trenches, often knee deep in water from the thunderstorms.. They fell easy prey to tropical diseases. The troops maintained their positions amid the terrible condition
Streamers: Yellow with two blue stripes.
Adm. Cervera's fleet had taken refuge (29 May 1898) in Santiago Bay, and the American Navy had asked the Army to reduce the defenses guarding the entrance. The War Department, eager to get the Army into action, directed Maj. Gen. William R. Shafter to embark his loosely organized V Corps, which had been assembled around Tampa, and sail for Cuba. After many delays, and in an atmosphere of the utmost confusion, the embarkation of some 17,000 men began on 11 June 1898, lasting four days. On 20 June the convoy reached a point off Santiago, but it was two days before Shafter could make up his mind where to land the troops. Rear Adm. William T. Sampson wanted them to land near the entrance of the bay, where a powerful fort dominated the area, and to storm the positions guarding the sea approaches. Shafter considered this plan too dangerous and followed the advice of Gen. Calixto Garcia, a Cuban insurgent leader, who recommended Daiquiri, 18 miles east of Santiago Bay, as a landing site.
Santiago, 22 June - 11 July 1898. The campaign got under way with a confused landing operation which, fortunately for the Americans, was unopposed. About 6,000 troops were landed on the first day, 22 June, and the march on Santiago began at once. On the following day Brig. Gen. Henry W. Lawton, commanding the forces ashore, easily captured the town of Siboney. As Lawton paused to reorganize, Brig. Gen. Joseph W. ("Fighting Joe") Wheeler stole a march on him by pushing ahead toward Santiago with his dismounted cavalry division. At Las Guasimas Wheeler ran into a sharp fight with the rear guard of a retiring Spanish force. The Americans suffered a loss of 16 killed and 52 wounded, and the Spaniards lost 12 killed and 14 wounded. This action only slightly delayed the main advance, since the Spaniards had not planned to make a determined stand until the Americans reached Santiago's outer defenses.
The most important of those defenses were along a series of ridges known collectively as San Juan, and in the village of E1 Caney to the north. Shafter decided to attack E1 Caney first and then follow with a frontal assault on the San Juan positions. General Lawton was assigned to take El Caney, which was defended by about 500 Spaniards, and Maj. Gen. Jacob F. Kent was in charge of a larger force assigned to take the San Juan position, which was held by about 1,200 Spaniards. Lawton's and Kent's attacking forces totaled some 8,000 men.
Shafter launched his attack on 1 July 1898. After considerable confusion and some temporary reverses, Kent's forces stormed and took the Spanish positions on the southern half of the ridge, while dismounted cavalry forces under General Wheeler took the northern end, including Kettle Hill where Lt. Col. Theodore Roosevelt and his "Rough Riders" distinguished themselves. The attack on E1 Caney made little headway at first against determined Spanish resistance, but success was finally achieved after the supporting artillery was moved forward to positions where it could place effective fire on the enemy. The Spanish forces dropped back half a mile to a second line of defense, and except for a heavy exchange of artillery fire on 2 July there was no more fighting. In the engagements at San Juan and E1 Caney there were 1,475 American and more than 550 Spanish casualties.
On 3 July 1898 Admiral Cervera attempted to escape from Santiago Bay with his fleet. A dramatic running fight with the American fleet ensued. All the Spanish ships were destroyed, with a loss of about 600 men. The Americans lost only one man killed and one seriously wounded.
Following Cervera's disaster, Gen. Jose Toral, defender of Santiago, where near-famine conditions existed, entered into negotiations with General Shafter. On 16 July he signed terms of surrender, which provided for the unconditional surrender of 11,500 troops in the city and some 12,000 other troops stationed elsewhere in the province of Santiago.
Puerto Rico, 25 July - 13 August 1898. After the fall of Santiago General Miles took personal charge of an expedition to Puerto Rico. His force of about 3,000 men landed at Guanica on 25 July 1898, and an additional force under Maj. Gen. John R. Brooke landed at Guayama. Four columns of American troops quickly overran the island. There was some light skirmishing in which a few Americans were wounded, but the population as a whole received the Americans with enthusiasm.
Manila, 31 July - 13 August 1898. The Manila campaign was a sequel to the first naval engagement of the war. On 1 May 1898 a small American squadron under Comdr. George Dewey completely destroyed a Spanish naval force in Manila Bay. To take the city of Manila, Dewey needed ground forces; he therefore sent a request to Washington for 5,000 troops. Meanwhile he blockaded the port and encouraged Filipino insurgents, led by Emilio Aguinaldo, whom Dewey had brought from exile in China, to besiege the city pending the arrival of American troops. Aguinaldo, who had previously led an insurrection against Spanish rule, hoped for recognition of his Philippine Republic. While waiting the arrival of ground forces, Dewey was faced with delicate diplomatic problems as English, German, and French naval forces arrived, ostensibly to protect their nationals in the islands, but also to be on hand to pick up any loose territory in case the United States decided against taking control after the collapse of Spanish power.
The War Department responded eagerly to the request for ground forces, and had sent about 11,300 troops to Manila under the command of Maj. Gen. Wesley Merritt by 25 July. The Spaniards in Manila indicated a willingness to surrender to the Americans, but not to the Filipinos, since they did not want the city exposed to undisciplined native insurgents after capitulation. Such an arrangement was agreeable to tee Administration in Washington, which by this time was planning to take control of the Philippines. Dewey and Merritt accordingly persuaded the Filipinos to let only Americans make the final assault on Manila, at the same time they quietly made arrangements with the Spanish authorities for what was planned to be a noisy but bloodless capture of the city. The operation began as planned on 12 August 1898, but a few bands of Filipinos became mixed with the advancing troops, and some uncontemplated fighting took place in which 5 Americans were killed and 35 wounded. Eventually the firing and confusion were reduced sufficiently to permit the Spaniards to surrender to the Americans. Formal articles of capitulation were signed on 14 August 1898. Total American losses during the operations in the Philippines were 18 killed and 109 wounded. Filipino units that had entered Manila were persuaded to leave, but subsequently Aguinaldo led a rebellion against American rule.
Streamers: Blue with two red stripes
Manila, 4 February - 17 March 1899. During the War with Spain, Emilio Aguinaldo (who had led an unsuccessful insurrection in 1896-97) organized a native army in the Philippines and secured control of several islands, including much of Luzon. Cession of the Philippines to the United States (Treaty of Paris, 10 December 1898) disappointed many Filipinos, and on 4 February 1899 Aguinaldo's followers clashed with American troops near Manila. The Americans, numbering about 12,000 combat troops under Maj. Gen. Elwell S. Otis, defeated Aguinaldo's force of some 40,000 men and suppressed an attempted uprising in Manila.
American columns pushed north, east, and south from Manila to split the insurgent forces and seize key towns. Brig. Gen. Lloyd Wheaton's column pushed out of Manila, gained control of the Pasig River in March, permanently interrupting communications between insurgent forces in north and south Luzon.
Iloilo, 8-12 February 1899. Although control of Luzon was the principal military objective in 1899, measures were also taken to establish American control over other important islands. Iloilo on Panay was occupied on 11 February, Cebu on 26 February, Bacolod in Negros on 10 March and Jolo in the Sulu Archipelago on 19 May.
Malolos, 24 March - 16 August 1899. Maj. Gen. Arthur MacArthur's column advanced along the railroad to the north. Malolos, the insurgent capitol, was the first objective. MacArthur's column seized Caloocan (10 February 1899), Malolos, the rebel capitol (31 March), San Fernando, Pampagna (5 May), and the stronghold of San Isidro (15 May) which was held only temporarily. The exploitation of advantage gained through capture of Malolos consisted in advancing to Angeles which was captured 16 August 1899 by the 12th Infantry.
Laguna de Bay, 8 - 17 April 1899. While MacArthur's column had been hammering the insurgents along the railroad to the north, Maj. Gen. Henry W. Lawton took his column south, captured Santa Cruz in the Laguna de Bay area on 10 April and returned to Manila on the 17th
San Isidro, 21 April - 30 May 1899. On 21 April 1899, General Lawton's troops assembled at La Loma Church, advanced on San Isidro where insurgent troops were dispersed, and returned to Manila on the 30th of May. Later, the busy soldiers of Lawton's command overran strong insurgent entrenchment's on the Zapote River.
Zapote River, 13 June.The rainy season in mid-1899 called a halt to further operations in Luzon. During this pause the first Philippine Scout units were organized and large numbers of additional troops began to arrive, bringing the strength of the American force (Eighth Army Corps) to some 47,500 men by the end of the year and 75,000 a year later.
Cavite, 7 - 13 October 1899. In October 1899, organized resistance in Cavite and adjacent provinces was destroyed by forces under General Wheaton and Brig. Gen. Theodore Schwan. In the same month, General Otis launched a three-pronged offensive in North Luzon directed at Aguinaldo's remaining forces.
San Isidro, 15 October - 19 November 1899. Lawton's column moved up the Rio Grande de la Pampagna, recaptured San Isidro (19 October), and neared San Fabian on Lingayen Gulf (18 November).
Tarlac 5 - 20 November 1899. MacArthur's forces advanced through the Central Luzon plain, seized Tarlac (12 November), and reached Dagupan on 20 November.
San Fabian, 6 - 19 November 1899. Wheaton with his command sailed from Manila on the 6th, landed at San Fabian (7 November), routed insurgents at San Jacinto (12 November), and linked up with MacArthur's column at Dagupan on 20 November.
After these campaigns only scattered insurrectionist elements remained active in north and south Luzon. Lawton (killed on 18 December 1899) drove up the Marikina in December to cut important insurgent communication lines, and Wheaton and Schwan completed pacification of Cavite in January - February 1900. Subsequently, insurgent remnants in the Visayans and Mindanao were dispersed. The capture of Aguinaldo by Brig. Gen. Frederick Funston, on 23 March 1901, dealt the final blow to the insurgent cause. President Roosevelt announced official conclusion of the Insurrection on 4 July 1902.
Mindanao, 4 July 1902 - 31 December 1904 and 22 October 1905. In 1902 serious trouble began with the Moros, a Mohammedan people in Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago, who had never been completely subjugated by the Spanish. When the Army occupied former Spanish garrison points, the Moros began to raid villages, attack soldiers, and otherwise resist American jurisdiction. Between July 1902 and December 1904, and again late in 1905, the Army dispatched a series of expeditions into the interior of Mindanao to destroy Moro strongholds. Col. Frank D. Baldwin with some 1,000 men (including elements of his own 27th Infantry and a mountain battery) invaded the territory of the Sultan of Bayan near Lake Lanao and defeated the Sultan's forces in the hotly contested Battle of Bayan on 2 May 1902. Capt. John J. Pershing headed a similar expedition into the Lanao country in 1903, and Capt. Frank R. McCoy finally killed the notorious Moro outlaw, Dato Ali, in the Cotabato district in October 1905.
Jolo, 1 - 24 May 1905 and 6 - 8 March 1906 and 11 - 15 June 1913. In May 1905, March 1906, and June 1913, Regulars had to cope with disorders too extensive to be handled by the local constabulary and Philippine Scouts on the island of Jolo, a Moro stronghold. During May 1905 Pala and some of his followers were killed; the remainder, gathered in a volcanic crater, surrendered to American forces. On March 6, 7, and 8, 1906 the battle of Bud Dajo was fought to a successful conclusion by Regulars and in mid-June 1913 Moros at Bagsac were whipped.
as listed at http://www.spanamwar.com visit this site for more detailed information.
US Army, V Corps, under the command of Maj. Gen.
William "Pecos Bill" Shafter. Headquarters troops included one company of Signal
Corps, three companies of Hospital Corps, Companies C and E of Engineers Battalion, Troops
A, C, D, and F of the 2nd Cavalry, and Parker's Detachment of the 13th U.S. Infantry with
four Gatling guns.
1st Division (Brig. Gen. Kent)
1st Brigade (Brig. Gen. Hawkins)
2nd Division (Brig. Gen. Lawton)
1t Brigade (Brig. Gen. Ludlow)
Cavalry Division (Maj. Gen. Joseph Wheeler)
1st Brigade (Brig. Gen. Sumner)
Independent Brigade (part of IV Army Corps, attached to V Corps)
3rd U.S. Infantry
1st Marine Battalion
1st Army Corps (Maj. Gen. John Brooke)
6th U.S. Cavalry, Troop H
1st Division (Maj. Gen. James Wilson)
3rd U.S. Artillery, Light Battery F
Additional troops assigned to the 1st Army Corps:
19th U.S. Infantry (2 battalions)
VIII Army Corps, under the command of Maj. Gen. Wesley Merritt
2nd Division (the VIII Corps had
one Division, oddly numbered as the Second Division. The Second Division was under the
command of Brig. Gen. Thomas M. Anderson.)
22nd US Infantry arrives at Manila, Philippines March 4, 1899.
22nd US Infantry Station List For The Philippine Islands June 1901.
RHQ, B, C, and D Company's - San Isidro
"A" Company - Jaen
"E and F" Company's - Aragat
"G" Company - Apalit
"H" Company - Baler, Principe
"I" Company - San Antonio
"K" Company - Georgiapan
"L" Company - Cabio
"M" Company - Mexico and Santa Ana
February 1902 the 22nd US Infantry returns to Fort Crook, NB. with two Congressional Medal Of Honor recipients, Charles H. Pierce and Charles W. Ray
Clerk of Joint Committee on Printing,
"The Abridgment of Message from the President of the United States to the Two Houses
of Congress", Washington: Government Printing Office, 1899. Vol. 3.
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